Home Forums Other Specialities Dermatology SEBUM , ACNE and BACTERIA.

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    Why would you want to reduce production
    of Sebum if sebum decreases the bacteria inhabiting the skin?- This relevant question has been raised by one of us.

    The Patho -physiology comes in useful as a reminder.

    Sebaceous glands are one part of the pilosebaceous unit, which also contains a hair follicle and a hair. These units are found everywhere on the body except on the palms, soles, top of the feet, and the lower lip. The number of pilosebaceous units is greatest on the face, upper neck, and chest.

    Sebaceous glands produce a substance called sebum, which is responsible for keeping the skin and hair moisturized. During adolescence, sebaceous glands enlarge and produce more sebum under the influence of hormones called androgens. After about age 20, sebum production begins to decrease.

    In the pilosebaceous unit, sebum produced by the sebaceous gland combines with cells being sloughed off within the hair follicle and “fills up” the hair follicle. When the follicle is “full,” the sebum spreads over the skin surface giving the skin an oily appearance. When this process works correctly, the skin is moisturized and remains healthy.

    If the sebaceous gland does not produce enough sebum, the skin is dry. On the other hand, if it produces too much sebum the skin is oily, a condition called seborrhea. If sebum gets trapped in the pore, acne can develop.

    A bacteria, known as Propionibacterium acnes, is a normal inhabitant of the skin. It uses sebum as a nutrient for growth, therefore increases in follicles during puberty. People with acne have morePropionibacterium acnes in their follicles than people without acne.
    The presence of bacteria attracts white blood cells to the follicle. These white blood cells produce an enzyme that damages the wall of the follicle, allowing the contents of the follicle to enter the dermis. This process causes an inflammatory response seen as papules (red bumps), pustules, and nodules.
    The bacteria also cause the formation of free fatty acids, which are irritants, increasing the inflammatory process in the follicle.

    Obstructed Follicles

    Problems arise when the sebum is trapped in the hair follicle. For reasons that are still unclear, some hair follicles become obstructed. The sebum is produced but gets trapped on the way out, and the cells that are normally sloughed off become “sticky”, plugging up the follicle. The process of obstructing follicles is called comedogenesis. It causes some follicles to form a type of acne called comedones, also known as blackheads and whiteheads.

    Thank you for the informative question.

    Dr G Mohan.

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